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钢-混凝土组合结构在海洋工程中的应用研究

聂建国

聂建国. 钢-混凝土组合结构在海洋工程中的应用研究[J]. 钢结构, 2020, 35(1): 20-33. doi: 10.13206/j.gjgSE19112601
引用本文: 聂建国. 钢-混凝土组合结构在海洋工程中的应用研究[J]. 钢结构, 2020, 35(1): 20-33. doi: 10.13206/j.gjgSE19112601
Jianguo Nie. Application of Steel-Concrete Composite Structure in Ocean Engineering[J]. STEEL CONSTRUCTION, 2020, 35(1): 20-33. doi: 10.13206/j.gjgSE19112601
Citation: Jianguo Nie. Application of Steel-Concrete Composite Structure in Ocean Engineering[J]. STEEL CONSTRUCTION, 2020, 35(1): 20-33. doi: 10.13206/j.gjgSE19112601

钢-混凝土组合结构在海洋工程中的应用研究

doi: 10.13206/j.gjgSE19112601
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    聂建国,Email:niejg@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn

Application of Steel-Concrete Composite Structure in Ocean Engineering

  • 摘要: 海洋工程建设是我国海洋强国战略实施的重要基础和保障。相比陆地工程,海洋工程面临更加复杂苛刻的建造环境和条件,其设计、建造、施工难度通常更大,因而对结构工程提出了新的挑战。钢-混凝土组合结构由于充分利用钢材和混凝土各自性能优势,扬长避短,优化组合,具有显著的性能优势和综合经济效益,在海洋工程中拥有广阔的应用前景。本文从跨海桥梁、海底沉管隧道和海上浮体平台三方面综述了清华大学组合结构研究团队近年来在海洋工程组合结构研发和应用方面的工作:1)提出了新型抗拔不抗剪连接技术,并与传统支座升降、预应力、施工工序优化等技术结合,形成跨海连续组合梁桥负弯矩综合抗裂技术,与现有预应力抗裂方法相比具有显著的施工和运维成本优势,与混凝土结构相比具有明显的抗裂性能优势。这一新技术将极大提升结构的耐久性,已经在大连湾跨海大桥的结构设计中得到应用,为组合结构跨海桥梁的推广应用提供了有效的技术支撑。2)研发了适用于跨海多塔斜拉桥的新型双钢板-混凝土组合桥塔,从界面连接和结构整体受力性能两个维度开展研究。结果表明,其在开孔板连接件的作用下可以实现钢与混凝土的协同工作,与纯钢结构和混凝土结构桥塔相比有更高的承载能力、刚度和延性。同时钢板可兼作混凝土模板,提高施工效率,混凝土对钢壳的约束作用也解决了纯钢结构易局部失稳的问题。新型组合桥塔已在南京长江五桥工程中得到应用,刚度、承载力等关键性能指标的显著优势有助于新型组合结构桥塔在未来跨海多塔斜拉桥工程中得到进一步的推广与应用。3)提出了适用于海底沉管隧道的隔舱式双钢板-混凝土组合结构,揭示了其抗弯、抗剪和型钢连接件性能,提出了相应的设计方法。结果表明,相对于传统钢筋混凝土结构,组合结构尺寸小,承载能力强,抗震适应性好。双钢板既可作为混凝土模板,也可起到受力与防水的多重作用。除此以外,该结构施工便捷,尺寸不受加工设备限制,预制厂地要求低。该成果已在深中通道沉管隧道段得到应用,是未来跨海隧道的重要发展方向。4)研发了海上超大型钢-混凝土组合结构漂浮平台,将其应用于海上超大型浮式平台的建设,基于水弹性响应及结构强度分析,对大型钢-混凝土组合箱式浮体平台进行了案例设计和分析。结果表明,其可在提高结构防火、抗爆、抗冲击性能的基础上,增强构件的稳定性及耐久性,显著减小结构用钢量,同时组合浮式平台不用设置加劲肋,设计和施工便捷,维护成本低,具有良好的发展前景。研究与实践表明,组合结构由于其灵活多样的结构形式,即使面对海洋工程复杂苛刻的荷载环境条件和使用功能需求,也能发挥其性能优势,解决工程难题。本文所提出的新型组合结构体系具有较为显著的性能优势,取得了令人满意的综合经济效益,为海洋工程建设提供了崭新的思路和选择,有力地推动了组合结构在海洋工程中的应用。目前,组合结构在海洋工程中的应用仍处于起步阶段,尚需在复杂荷载响应分析、高性能新材料应用、结构形式多样性和适用性等方面进一步开展深入研究。
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  • 收稿日期:  2019-08-29
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