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中国空间结构的近期发展与工程实践

薛素铎

薛素铎. 中国空间结构的近期发展与工程实践[J]. 钢结构, 2020, 35(7): 1-16. doi: 10.13206/j.gjgSE20041904
引用本文: 薛素铎. 中国空间结构的近期发展与工程实践[J]. 钢结构, 2020, 35(7): 1-16. doi: 10.13206/j.gjgSE20041904
Suduo Xue. Recent Development and Engineering Practice of Spatial Structures in China[J]. STEEL CONSTRUCTION, 2020, 35(7): 1-16. doi: 10.13206/j.gjgSE20041904
Citation: Suduo Xue. Recent Development and Engineering Practice of Spatial Structures in China[J]. STEEL CONSTRUCTION, 2020, 35(7): 1-16. doi: 10.13206/j.gjgSE20041904

中国空间结构的近期发展与工程实践

doi: 10.13206/j.gjgSE20041904
基金项目: 

The author gratefully acknowledges the supports from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51778017) and Beijing Natural Science Foundation (8172011).

详细信息
    作者简介:

    薛素铎,Email:sdxue@bjut.edu.cn

Recent Development and Engineering Practice of Spatial Structures in China

Funds: 

The author gratefully acknowledges the supports from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51778017) and Beijing Natural Science Foundation (8172011).

  • 摘要: 近年来,随着中国经济的快速发展,为满足各种文化、体育、交通及社会活动的需要,建造大跨空间结构的需求日益增多,空间结构的工程实践取得重要进展,各种形式的空间结构体系被成功应用于体育场馆、会展中心、文化娱乐场所、机场航站楼、植物园温室、厂房及库房等。为展现我国空间结构的最新成就,推动空间结构的进一步发展,从四个方面对空间结构的近期发展与工程实践进行总结和回顾,内容涉及了空间结构的实际工程应用、发展回顾、应用案例汇总、结构设计考虑、工程结构体系介绍以及空间结构的创新等。
    1)空间网格结构在机场航站楼的应用。
    近年来,我国建造了若干座机场,空间网格结构是机场航站楼的主要结构形式。对近十年我国机场航站楼工程进行了汇总,对新建的北京大兴国际机场的结构体系和相关技术进行了详细介绍。由于机场航站楼屋面覆盖面积大,其温度效应和地震响应是结构设计中需要考虑的重要因素。以深圳宝安机场T3航站楼为例,介绍了其设计做法。
    2)铝合金空间结构的发展。
    与空间钢结构相比,铝合金空间结构具有很多独特的优势。对近年来我国铝合金空间结构的应用工程进行了汇总,详细介绍了上海辰山植物园温室和南京牛首山佛顶宫铝合金空间网格结构的结构体系和设计细节。结果表明,采用板式铆接节点的铝合金单层空间网格结构是一种性能优良的体系,具有空间跨越能力强,自由曲面建筑造型美等特点。
    3)索结构体系创新。
    索结构是空间结构的一种重要形式。近年来,随着各种大型体育赛事的承办,索结构体系主要应用于各类体育场馆中。并按四种类型介绍索结构体系的创新与发展:
    a.索穹顶结构。回顾了索穹顶结构在中国的发展,详细介绍了天津理工大学体育馆索穹顶结构体系,介绍了雅安天全体育馆采用金属屋面的做法。然而,与国际发展水平相比,我国在索穹顶体系应用上仍存在差距。
    b.弦支穹顶结构。介绍了弦支穹顶结构在济南奥体中心体育馆、常州奥体中心体育馆、北京工业大学体育馆及大连体育中心体育馆中的工程应用,对大连体育中心体育馆采用的新型巨型网格弦支穹顶结构体系进行了说明。
    c.轮辐式索结构。介绍了轮辐式索结构在中国的工程实践,主要包括佛山世纪莲体育场、枣庄体育场和武汉五环体育中心体育场。作为典型工程,介绍了三种不同类型轮辐式索结构体系,分别为深圳宝安体育场采用的双层索桁架体系、苏州奥体中心体育场采用的单层索网体系、徐州奥体中心体育场和郑州奥体中心体育场采用的大开口索承网格结构体系。
    d.索网结构。分别介绍了为2022年冬奥会建设的国家速滑馆索网结构和国家重大科学工程500 m口径球面射电望远镜(FAST)主动反射面采用的索网结构。
    4)膜结构工程实践。
    膜结构具有轻质、透光等独有特性,近年来广泛应用于各类建筑结构中。回顾了膜结构在中国的发展,介绍了膜结构在体育场屋面体系中的应用,以及ETFE膜结构的应用情况。随着中国城镇化建设发展和国家全民建设运动以及环境保护政策的需求,为充气膜结构应用提供了发展空间,并在近年得到了快速发展。
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